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(1a) A state can be defined as a political organization of people living within defined geographical boundaries, with a centralized government having the power to make and enforce laws that apply to all people living within its jurisdiction.

(i)Sovereignty: This refers to the state’s supreme power and the right to govern its people without any external interference. It means that the state has the authority to make laws, impose taxes, control resources and defend its territory.

(ii)Territory: A state has a clearly defined and recognized geographical boundary, which demarcates it from neighboring states. This territory is the space over which the state exercises its sovereignty and also includes land, air and water resources.

(iii)Population: A state is made up of people who are citizens or subjects of that state. The size, composition, and distribution of the population are crucial factors in defining the nature of a state.

(iv)Government: A state has a centralized government that exercises control over its population and territory through the use of legitimate force. The government has various organs like the executive, legislature, and judiciary, and is responsible for ensuring the welfare and security of its citizens.

(v)Recognition: A state is recognized by other states, which means that it has established diplomatic relations with them. Recognition also means that the state has a degree of legitimacy in the international system as a political entity.

(i)Ideology: Political parties with clear and appealing ideologies tend to attract and retain more supporters.

(ii)Leadership: The quality and popularity of a party’s leadership play a significant role in determining its electoral success.

(iii)Financial Resources: Adequate financial resources, improved fundraising strategies, and financial accountability help political parties to compete effectively in elections.

(iv)Media: The effective use of media and advertising campaigns can help to shape public opinion and influence voting patterns.

(v)Voter Turnout: The number of registered voters who actually turn up on Election Day can impact the outcome of elections, especially in close contests.

VICoalition Building: The ability to build alliances with other political groups can help a political party to expand its base of support and win elections.

(i)Lobbying: The use of direct or indirect communication with policymakers to influence policy decisions or legislation.

(iii)Public Demonstrations: Pressure groups often organize protests, rallies, and public demonstrations to raise public awareness about their agenda and build support.

(iii)Litigation: Pressure groups pursue legal action to challenge government policies or regulations that conflict with their interests.

(iv)Boycotts: Pressure groups may organize boycotts of products or businesses that do not support their interests or values.

(v)Grassroots Mobilization: Pressure groups may engage in grassroots mobilization to build a coalition of supporters and allies who work together to achieve common goals.

(vii)Media Campaigns: Pressure groups may use media campaigns to raise awareness about their objectives and mobilize a larger audience in support of their cause.

(i)Merit-Based Appointments: It is essential to have a transparent and merit-based appointment process that is focused on the qualifications and experience of candidates rather than their political affiliations.

(ii)Civil Service Codes of Conduct: The establishment of codes of conduct that require civil servants to act impartially and professionally, irrespective of political affiliations.

(iii)Civil Service Commissions: The introduction of independent civil service commissions that oversee appointments, promotions, transfers, and dismissals of civil servants.

(iv)Professional Training: The provision of professional training for civil servants to enhance their skills and knowledge in their areas of expertise, and provide guidelines on ethics and values.

(v)Performance Evaluation: The development of a performance evaluation system that judges performance based on results achieved rather than political loyalty.

(vi)Protection of Civil Servants: Measures to protect civil servants from arbitrary dismissal or victimization based on political affiliation and to preserve their neutrality in political affairs.

(i) Centralized Power: Military rule typically concentrates power in the hands of a small group of military leaders or a single military dictator. The military establishment exercises significant authority and influence over the government, often overshadowing or sidelining civilian institutions.

(ii) Suspension of Civil Liberties: Military rule often involves the curtailment or suspension of civil liberties and fundamental rights. Freedom of speech, assembly, and association may be restricted, and censorship may be imposed to control the flow of information and limit dissenting voices.

(iii) Suppression of Political Opposition: Military regimes tend to suppress or eliminate political opposition. Political parties and opposition groups may be banned, and dissenting voices may face persecution, imprisonment, or even violence. Elections, if held at all, may be tightly controlled or manipulated to maintain the military’s grip on power.

(iv) Authoritarian Governance: Military rule is typically characterized by authoritarian governance, where decision-making authority lies with a small group of military leaders. Civilian institutions may be weakened or dismantled, and the military often plays a dominant role in policymaking, law enforcement, and administration.

(v) Martial Law and Emergency Powers: Military rule frequently involves the imposition of martial law or emergency powers, granting the military extensive control and authority over civilian life. These powers may include the suspension of constitutional rights, imposition of curfews, and increased surveillance to maintain order and suppress dissent.

(vi) Focus on National Security: Military regimes often prioritize national security concerns and defense matters above other social and economic issues. Policies and resources are directed towards maintaining and expanding military capabilities, often at the expense of social welfare programs or development initiatives.

(i) Political Instability: The Action Group crises led to a period of political instability in Nigeria. The conflict within the party resulted in factionalism and infighting, weakening the overall political structure. The government was unable to effectively address pressing issues and provide stable governance, creating a sense of uncertainty and distrust among the population.

(ii) Regional Divisions: The crises exacerbated regional divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group had strong support in the Western region, and the internal conflicts intensified the divide between the Western region and other regions of the country. This further heightened ethnic and regional tensions, making it challenging to foster national unity and cooperation.

(iii) Decline of the Action Group: The crises significantly weakened the Action Group as a political force. The party splintered into factions, leading to a loss of public confidence and electoral support. The internal power struggles and divisions within the party contributed to its decline and eventual marginalization in Nigerian politics.

(iv) Rise of Military Intervention: The crises created a power vacuum and a perception of political instability. This provided an opportunity for the military to intervene in the political affairs of Nigeria. The subsequent military coups in 1966 and the subsequent military rule that followed were influenced, in part, by the fragility of the political system resulting from the Action Group crises.

(v) Erosion of Democratic Processes: The Action Group crises highlighted the fragility of Nigeria’s democratic processes. The breakdown of trust and the use of violence within the party undermined the principles of democracy, such as fair elections and peaceful transitions of power. This erosion of democratic values had long-lasting implications for Nigeria’s governance and political system.

(vi) Socioeconomic Impact: The political instability caused by the Action Group crises had adverse effects on Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. The government’s focus shifted away from addressing critical issues such as infrastructure development, education, and poverty reduction. The lack of effective governance hindered progress and impeded the country’s overall development trajectory.

(i) National Security: Ensuring national security is a primary concern for any country, and it significantly influences foreign policy decisions. Nigeria faces security challenges such as terrorism, insurgency, and cross-border conflicts. These security concerns drive Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives, including cooperation with regional and international partners, intelligence sharing, and efforts to combat terrorism.

(ii) Economic Interests: Economic considerations play a crucial role in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria is an oil-rich nation, and its economy heavily relies on oil exports. Therefore, maintaining favorable economic relations with other countries, attracting foreign investments, securing access to international markets, and diversifying its economy are key foreign policy objectives for Nigeria.

(iii) Regional Leadership: As the most populous country in Africa and a regional power, Nigeria seeks to exert leadership and influence within the African continent. Nigeria plays an active role in regional organizations like the African Union (AU), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Gulf of Guinea Commission. Nigeria’s foreign policy aims to promote stability, peacekeeping efforts, conflict resolution, and economic integration within Africa.

(iv) Political Stability: Nigeria’s foreign policy is influenced by the need to maintain political stability both domestically and in its neighboring countries. Internal political stability allows Nigeria to project a positive image internationally and enhances its ability to engage in diplomacy, trade, and cooperation with other nations.

(v) Historical Factors: Historical experiences and relationships also shape Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria was a former British colony and gained independence in 1960. Its history of colonization and struggles for independence have influenced its worldview and foreign policy objectives. Nigeria maintains close ties with other Commonwealth countries, particularly those in Africa, and seeks to promote African solidarity and decolonization.

(vi) Global Alliances and Multilateralism: Nigeria actively participates in international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and strives to maintain positive relationships with major global powers. Nigeria’s foreign policy seeks to leverage its position within these organizations and forge alliances to advance its national interests, promote peace and security, and address global challenges such as climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.


Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority and constituent political units, such as states or provinces. It establishes a dual sovereignty structure, where the central government and the regional governments each have their respective powers and responsibilities. Federalism allows for a distribution of power that aims to balance the interests of both the central government and the regional units.

(i) Representation and Participation: Creating new states within a federation allows for a more inclusive and representative political system. It ensures that diverse regions or communities have a voice and can actively participate in decision-making processes at both the regional and national levels. State creation can help address regional imbalances and promote a sense of belonging and identity among different groups within a country.

(ii) Decentralization of Power: By creating new states, power is decentralized and shared among multiple regional entities. This can prevent the concentration of power in a single central authority and promote local governance. Decentralization allows for more effective and responsive administration, as regional governments can address local issues and priorities more directly.

(iii) Regional Development and Resource Allocation: State creation can be motivated by the need to promote balanced regional development and ensure equitable distribution of resources. It allows for specific regions to have greater control over their own resources and development plans. This can lead to focused development initiatives, tailored to the specific needs and priorities of each region, thus reducing regional disparities.

(iv) Cultural and Linguistic Autonomy: Creating states within a federation can provide protection and autonomy for distinct cultural, linguistic, or ethnic communities. It allows for the preservation and promotion of local languages, customs, traditions, and identities. State creation can empower communities to safeguard their cultural heritage and exercise their right to self-determination within the framework of a larger federal structure.

(v) Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Coexistence: In some cases, state creation can be a means to resolve long-standing conflicts or ethnic tensions within a country. By granting greater autonomy and self-governance to specific regions, it may help accommodate the aspirations of different communities and foster peaceful coexistence. State creation can serve as a mechanism for managing diversity and promoting stability within a federation.

(i) Emir/Sarki: The Emir or Sarki was the supreme executive authority in the Hausa Fulani administration. Their duties included maintaining law and order, overseeing the administration, and making decisions on political, economic, and social matters. They had the power to enforce policies and resolve disputes within their jurisdiction.

(ii) Waziri: The Waziri served as the prime minister or chief advisor to the Emir/Sarki. They were responsible for providing counsel, guidance, and recommendations on governance matters. The Waziri played a crucial role in the decision-making process and assisted in implementing policies and managing the administrative affairs of the kingdom.

(iii) Madawaki: The Madawaki was a high-ranking officer responsible for coordinating the military forces of the kingdom. Their duties included organizing and leading the army during times of war or conflict. The Madawaki worked closely with the Emir/Sarki to ensure the security and defense of the kingdom.

(iv) Dan Iyan: The Dan Iyan was the chief courtier or chamberlain in the Hausa Fulani administration. They acted as the personal attendant to the Emir/Sarki and managed the affairs of the royal court. Their duties included organizing court proceedings, maintaining protocol, and ensuring the smooth functioning of the Emir’s household.

(v) Galadima: The Galadima was an important administrative officer responsible for overseeing the affairs of the province or district within the kingdom. Their duties included collecting taxes, maintaining public infrastructure, settling disputes, and implementing the policies and directives of the Emir/Sarki at the local level.

(vi) Dogari: The Dogari was in charge of the treasury and finance of the kingdom. They managed the collection of taxes, controlled the kingdom’s resources, and ensured proper accounting and financial management. The Dogari played a crucial role in maintaining the economic stability and prosperity of the kingdom.



(1a) Define a state
(1b) Explain five attributes of a state

(2) Explain six factors that can determine the electoral success of a political party

(3) Give and explain six techniques employed by pressure groups to achieve their goals

(4) Suggest six measures that can be put in place to make civil service non-partisan


(5) Elucidate six characters of military rule

(6) Evaluate six consequences of the action group crisis of 1962

(7) State and discuss six factors that influence Nigerian foreign policy

(8) In six ways, justify the existence of Nigeria as a member of the common wealth of nation

(9a) Define federation
(9bi) Advance five importance of state creation in a federation

(10) Mention and explain six duties performed by the executive officers of hausa/fulani pre-colonial administration.

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  1. I need government answer 2023

    by Abdulkabir anif alani on Jul 13, 2023 at 11:51 AM

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