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2019/2020 WAEC (WASSCE) SSCE GOVERNMENT SYLLABUS/Questions and Answers

Below is this year’s 2019 Waec Syllabus for Government. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.. View Government Waec Syllabus as Text below… WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION GOVERNMENT PREAMBLE This syllabus aims at assessing the candidate’s ability to (a) define the concept of Government and show his understanding of its principles, institutions and processes; (b) recognise his role as an informed citizen and his contribution towards the achievement of national development; (c) evaluate the successes, failures and problems of governments in West Africa; (d) appreciate the role of his country as a member of the international community. RUBRICS AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION There will be two papers – Papers 1 and 2, both of which must be taken. PAPER 1: This will be a one-hour multiple choice objective test consisting of fifty (50) questions drawn from the entire syllabus. The weighted contribution of this paper shall be 40%. PAPER 2: This will be a 2½ hour essay type test consisting of two sections A and B. SECTION A: ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT This shall contain five (5) questions out of which candidates shall be required to attempt any two (2) only. SECTION B: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN WEST AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS This shall contain seven (7) questions out of which candidates shall be required to attempt any three (3) only. The weighted contribution of this paper shall be 60%. DETAILED SYLLABUS SECTION A: ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT 1. MEANING AND SCOPE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER – GOVERNMENT (i) Government as an institution of the state. (ii) Government as a process or art of governing. (iii) Government as an academic field of study. 2. BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT (i) Basic Concepts – Power, Authority, Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Democracy, Political Culture , Political Socialization, Communalism, Socialism, Communism, Capitalism, Feudalism, Fascism, Nazism, Totalitarianism, Society, State and Nation, Colonialism and Nationalism. (ii) Basic Principles – Rule of Law, Fundamental Human Rights, Separation of Powers/Checks and balances, Constitutionalism, Political Participation, Representative Government, Centralization and Decentralization – (Delegated Legislation, Devolution and Deconcentration). 3. CONSTITUTIONS (i) Definition and sources. (ii) Scope. (iii) Types – Written and Unwritten; rigid and flexible. (iv) Functions. 4. TYPES/FORMS OF GOVERNMENT Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential or non-parliamentary, Parliamentary or Cabinet, Monarchical and Republican. 5. ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT The Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. (Types/structure, composition/membership; functions; power and limitations). 6. CITIZENSHIP Status, Rights, Duties and Obligations of individuals in the state. 7. POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY SYSTEMS (i) Political Parties – definition, organization, types and functions. (ii) Party Systems – definition, types and characteristics. 8. THE ELECTORAL PROCESS (i) Meaning, Types and Suffrage. (ii) Purposes of Elections. (iii) Organization of Elections – Features of free and fair elections; stages of elections. (iv) Types and characteristics of Electoral systems. (v) Electoral Commission – Roles or duties of electoral commissions. Problems, Organization and Characteristics. 9. PRESSURE GROUPS AND PUBLIC OPINION (i) Pressure Groups – definition, types, characteristics, mode of operation and functions. (ii) Public Opinion – definition, formation, measurement and functions. 10. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (i) Definition of Public Administration. (ii) Civil Service – Meaning, Structure, Characteristics and Functions. (iii) The Public/Civil Service Commission – Composition and Functions. (iv) Public Corporations – definition, purposes, functions, organization, control and problems. (v) Local Governments – Meaning, Types, Purposes, Functions, Sources of Revenue, Control, Problems and Reforms. SECTION B: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN WEST AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 1. PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES. The Structural Organization of the following: (a) Nigeria – Hausa/Fulani, the Yoruba and the Igbo. (b) Ghana – The Akan, the Ewe and the Mole Dagbani. (c) Sierra Leone – The Mende and Temne. (d) The Gambia – The Wolof and Mandingo. (e) Liberia – The Vai and the Kru. 2. COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION (i) Reasons for Colonialism. (ii) The policy and structure of the British Colonial Administration – Crown Colony, Protectorate and Indirect Rule. (iii) The policy of French Colonial Administration – Assimilation and Association. (iv) Chieftaincy during colonial period – status and functions. 3. NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA (i) Nationalism before the Second World War (Proto-nationalism) – Meaning, features and factors. (ii) Nationalism after the Second World War – factors, growth and effects. 4. CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS OF CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES (i) Pre-independence Constitutions – (Background, main features, merits and demerits) (a) Nigeria – Clifford 1922, Richards 1946, Macpherson 1951, Lyttleton 1954. (b) Ghana – Clifford 1916, Guggisberg 1925, Burns 1946, Arden Clarke 1951, Nkrumah 1954. (c) Sierra Leone – Slater 1924, Stevenson 1947, Beresford Stooke 1951, The 1956 and 1958 Constitutions. (d) The Gambia – The 1947, 1951, 1954, 1960, 1962 and 1963 Constitutions. Post-independence Constitutions – (Background, main features, merits and demerits) (a) Nigeria – Independence Constitution 1960, Republican Constitution 1963, The 1979 and 1989 Constitutions. (b) Ghana – Independence Constitution 1957, Republican Constitution 1960, 2nd Republican Constitution 1969, The 1979 and 1992 Constitutions. (c) Sierra Leone – Independence Constitution 1961, Republican Constitution 1971, The 1978 and 1991 Constitutions. (d) The Gambia – Independence Constitution 1965, Republican Constitution 1970. (e) Liberia – Independence/Republican Constitution 1985. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; The Gambia; Liberia. Formation, objectives, achievements and failures. 6. MILITARY RULE IN THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; The Gambia; Liberia. 7. FEDERAL/UNITARY SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT IN WEST AFRICA Factors, Structures, Features and Problems. 8. FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; The Gambia; Liberia. Definitions, Factors, Advantages and Disadvantages. 9. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS The United Nations Organization (UNO); The Organization of African Unity (OAU); The Commonwealth; The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Origin, aims/objectives, organizational structure, functions, achievements and problems. W.A.S.S.C.E GOVERNMENTSUGGESTED READING LIST AUTHOR TITLE 1. A. APPADORAI 2. J. H. PRICE 3. C. A. LEEDS 4. C. F. STRONG 5. W. E. F. WARD 6. G. Y. AMOAH 7. ROBER S. JORDAN 8. DARE & OYEWOLE 9. OYEDIRAN & OTHERS 10. FRANCIS ADIGWE 11. DENNIS AUSTIN 12. T. HODGKIN 13. E. A. KEAY & H. THOMAS The Substance of Politics Political Institutions in West Africa Political Studies Modern Political Institutions Government in West Africa Groundwork of Government for West Africa Government and Power in West Africa A Textbook of Government for Senior Secondary Schools Government for Senior Secondary Schools (Books 1 – 3) Essentials of Government for West Africa Politics in Ghana 1946 – 1960 African Political Parties West African Government 
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