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# 2014/2015 WAEC/WASSCE Specimens/Practicals Answers

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## 2014/2015 WAEC/WASSCE Specimens/Practicals Answers

Reply 1 on :

Mr Xbrains™(Male,23)- CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS 2013

1. VOLUMENTRIC ANALYSIS

QUESTION 1.
'A' is a solution of
tetraoxosulphate(vi).
B is a solution coomtaining !.4g of
potassiumb hydroxide per 25.0cm3.

(a.) Put A into burette and titrate with 20.0cm3 or 25.0cm3 portion into of B using Methyl Orange as an indicator.
Record the volume of your pipette. Tabulate your burette readings
and calculate the average volume of acid used.

(b.) From your result and information provided. Calculate
the
(i.) Concentration of B in mol/dm3

(ii.) Concentration of A in mol/dm3

(iii.) Number of Hydrogen ions in 1.0dm^2 of A.
The equation for the reaction is: H2SO4 + 2KOH --> k2SO4 + 2H2O. {H=1, O=16, K=39}
SOLUTION
Burrete reading(cm3)| Rough |1st | 2nd | 3rd Final(cm3) | 18.60 | 18.00| 20.30|28.00 Initial(cm3) | 0.00 | 0.00 | 2.30 |10.00 Vol. Acid used(cm3)| 18.60 |18.00| 18.00| 18.00
The average volume of acid used
= 18.00 + 18.00 + 18.00/3 = 18.00cm3. (bi.) Mass of KOH per dm3 of B = 39+16+1= 56. Conc. of B = 5.6/56 = 0.01mol/dm3.

(bii.) The equation for the reaction is: H2SO4 + 2KOH -->k2SO4 + 2H2O. From the equation ==> Conc of A * Volume of A * Mole ratio =
CA*18.00/0.10*2 = 1/2 .'. CA= 0.10 * 25/2*18' CA= 0.0694mol/dm3.

(biii.) 1dm3 of 1.0mol/dm3 H2SO4
contains (2*6.0*10^23).
Hydrogen atom ==> 1dm3 of 0.694mol/dm3
H2SO4 contains 2*6.0*10^23 =8.328x10^22.

------------------------------------------------

NOTE: THIS IS JUST A STUDY OF THE SPECIMEN THAT WAEC
PROVIDED. THESE ARE LIKELY QUESTION U
WILL SEE ON PRACTICAL DAY.
TRY TO USE THE END POINT( ie Ur school's Volume of acid used) OF UR SCHOOL( IT MATTERS A LOT); AS
OURS IS 18.00 AS SHOWN ABOVE..
**** ALL USERS SHOULD NOT
WORRY COS THEY WILL GET THE EXACT ANSWERS ON THE EXAM DAY AS WE SAID EARLIER..

----------------------------------------

[b]QUESTIONS & SOLUTIONS to QUANTITATIVE SALT ANALYSIS:

-QUESTION (2a.) C & D are inorganic salts. X is a solution of an inorganic compound.
Carryout the following exercises on C, D & X.
Record your observations and
identify any gas(es) evolved. State the conclusion drawn from the result of each test.

[i.] Add about 5cm3 of distilled water to sample C in a test tube
and shake thoroughly. Divide the esulting solution into two
portions.

[ii.] Put about 2cm3 of X into seperate test tubes and add the
first portion of solution in (2ai).

[iii.] To the second portion of the resulting solution in (2ai), add few drops of BaCl2(aq) followed
by excess dil HCl.

[bi.] To about 2cm3 portion of the resulting solution in a test-tube, add NaOH in drops and in excess.

[ii.] To another portion of the resulting solution, add few drops of dilute trioxonitrate.

SOLUTION
TEST

[2ai.] C + distilled H2O.
[ii.] 1st portion + BaCl2(aq).
[iii.] 1st portion + BaCl2 + HCl.
[iv.] Residue + dil HCl.
[bi.] 2nd portion + NaOH in drops + excess NaOH.
[ii.] C + HNO3.
[iii.] C + dil HNO3 + NH3 in drop and in excess NH3.

OBSERVATIONS

[2ai.] Dissolves completely.
[ii.] White ppt is formed.
[iii.] Ppt dissolved.
[iv.] A colourless gas is elvolved and effervescence occured.

[bi]. Dark green ppt.
Ppt insoluble in excess NaOH.

[ii.] Effervescence occured.
[iii.] Insoluble in drop.
Soluble in excess NH3.
INFERENCE

[2ai.] A soluble salt is present.

[ii.] SO4^2-, SO3^2-, S^2-, or CO3^2- suspected.

[iii.] SO3^2- present.
[iv.] H2 present.
[bi.] Fe^2+ Confirmed.
Fe^3+ formed.
[ii.] CO2- suspected.
[iii.] SO3^2- present.

NOTE THAT ^ Means Raise to
Power and above is a questions likely to show up during the exam. Study our symbols Very well.

THIS TOOK ME TIME TO ARRANGE PLS STAY TUNED OTHER ARE LOADING...

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Reply 2 on :

TIMIDAYO(,)- PRATICAL BIOLOGY

SPECIMEN A:
specimen A is a stem of cassava. specimen A is propagated by
stem cutting. specimen A consist of nodes .a leaf or palmate leaf . botanical name =manihof spp. pest of specimen A includes.
(a) grasshopper
(b)white flies
(c) mealy bug
(d)Rodents . disease of specimen A are casava mosaic,leaf spot,root knot etc

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN A
(a)possesion of notes
(b)presence of inter nodes
(c)possesion of buds
(d)possesion of leaves and leaves
stalk
(e)it stored food in the roots

SPECIMEN B
SPECIMEN B is a plantain or bannana sucker. method of propagating specimen B is by sucker. class of fruit of specimen B is a berry.
Other plants in the same class of berry are:
(a)tomato
(b)guava
(c)garden eggs.
OTHER PLANTS THAT CAN BE PROPAGATED BY SUCKER
(a)pineaple
(b)bannana .
Suckers are underground young plants which develop from the axillary buds of the parent plant.
Ecological consequence of sucker is over crowding leading toncompelition for space, light and available food resources .

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN B

(a)presence of advations roots
(b) possesion of axillary buds
(c) possesion of leaf base
(d)underground stem of main shoot is also present.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANT OF
SPECIMEN B

(a)The new plant arised from the stem sucker is a source of income to the farmers

(b)the fruit cell is also a source ofincome

(c)the fruit is a good source of food, vitamins,minerals,e.t.c

(d)the leaf base of the main shoot can also host pests and
diseases.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
A AND B

(a)Both are propagated through
their vegetative parts.

(b)both consist of buds

DIFFERECES BETWEEN SPECIMEN A AND B
SPECIMEN A (a)its a stem of cassava
(b)absense of the stem sucker
(c)it is dicot SPECIMEN B
(a)it is a plantain sucker
(b)presence of stem sucker
(c)it is a monocot specimen C specimen C is runner of grass. Runners are stems which grow horizontally on the surface of the ground
examples are:
(a)imperata cylindrica
(b)runner of sweet potato
(c)strawberry
(d)blueberry etc

DIAGRAM
The structure of imperata cylindrics(a runner)

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A
RUNNER

(a)possesion of buds

(b)they grow horizontally to the
surface of the ground

(c)they are organs of vegetative propagation

(d)possesion of advatition roots

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN B & C
(a)Both are propagated through
their vegetative parts

(b)Both have advertition roots

(c)Scale leaves are present in both specimen

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
B & C

SPECIMEN B
(a)Its a plantain sucker

(b)Possesion of underground stem.

(c)stem sucker grow vertically

SPECIMEN C
(a)Is a runner of grass.
(b)The stem grow on the surface of the ground.
(c)Stem runner grow horizontally.

SPECIMEN D
specimen D is spirogyrs filorments in water in a petric dish. Specimen D is a filaments plants in the division of thallophyt.

Other organisms in the thallophyt are:

(a)sargassum
(b)closterium
(c)anabaena e.t.c

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN D
(a)Possesion of clchiroplast.
(b)Possesion of mucilage.
(c)Possesion of cell wall.
(d)Possesion of pyreniod.
(e)It is a simple multicellular.

DIAGRAM
The structure of specimen D

Mode of reproduction:
-specimen D carries out sexual reproduction by conjugation & asexual reproduction by
fragmentation
-When specimen D (SPIROGYRS) cell is immersed in salt (super) solution more concentrated than its cell sap,the cell (spirogyrs)we shrink & die (plasmolysis have taking
place).

-Rub the filament of the specimen D gently between your fingers & you will observe that the filaments are coated with mucilage which makes them
slimy.

-Place a filament of specimen D in a cover slip or white tide & place a drop of iodine solution the part(portion)of the
specimen.the portion turned blue-black showing the presence of starch.

-The invunerable bubbles of gas form among the threads of
specimen D shows that oxygen is evolved during photosynthesis.

Mode of nutrition of specimen:
-D is AUTOgrapH (holophytic) nutrition.

-The habitat of specimen D is aquatic (moist place)

SPECIMEN E
+DIAGRAM+
The structure of specimen E

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN E
(a)it consist of bronehioles
(b)it also consist of alveoli

(c)it consist of network of blood capillaries

(d)it is used for respiration

-Respiration is a metabolic process wchich takes part in living cells by which organic nutrients are broken down to release energy(ATP)for life activity or (6H12 O6+6O2-->6CO2+6H2O+ATP)

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Reply 3 on :

Mr Xbrains™(Male,23)- SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND
RESPIRATION

(a)Both occur in living organisms.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS
RESPIRATION:

(a)it is exothrmic

(b)it occur in plants & animals
(c)respiration is a catabolic process
(d)heat is libiberated
(e)oxygen is used
Photosynthesis:

(a)it is endothermic
(b)it occur only in plants
(c)photosynthesis is an anearobic procees
(d)heat is absorbed
(e)oxygen is liberated

SPECIMEN F
SPECIMEN F is freshly perserved Toad.

Habitat of specimen F is terretrial-aquatic.

Respiratory organ:
lungs,skin,gills,& buea cavity.
Class of specimen F is amphibian.
Parental care= none.
Reproduction= sexual.
Fertilization= external.
Excretory organ= kidney.
Mode of nutrition=
carnivores,during adult stage &
herbivore during tadpole stage.
**********************
----DIAGRAM----
structure of specimen F
************************
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF
SPECIMEN F

specimen F undergoes various stages of development which are:
(a)Courtship stage
(b)the egg stage
(c)The young tadpole stage
(d)The external gill stage
(e)The internal gill stage
(f)The limb stage
(g)The young toad stage.

METAMORPHOSIS of specimen F

SPECIMEN F undergoes
imcomplete metemorphosis,that

Metamorphosis is the series of gradual charges of forms & shape of an insect from the fertilised egg to adult.

EFFECTS OR ROLE OF HORMONE IN
THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOAD (SPECIMEN F)

In the specimen
F,metamorphosis is controlled by the hormone called thyroxin,tyroxin lastens the rates of metamorphosis.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN F

(a)Possesion of bulg eye
(b)possesion of poisonous gland.

(c)specimen F exibit dual life
(d)absense of neek
(e)possesion of webbed limbs

ADAPTATION OF SPECIMEN F IT'S HABITAT

(a)Possesion of poisonous glands for defence.
(b)Presence of long sticky tongue for capturin of prey.
(c)Possesion of webbed limbs for swimming.
(d)Possesion of tympanic membrane for recieving sound.
(e)Absense of tail for easy hopping.

ECONOMIC IMPORTACE OF SPECIMEN F

(a)It destroyed some equatic weeds during tadpole stage

(b)It reduce the effect of structural adaptative of insects.

(c)It serve as a food to terrestrial organism eg hawk,snake e.t.c

(d)It also serve as food to some aquatic species

SPECIMEN G1

Specimen G1 is water leaf plant with fleshy stem
***************************
----DIAGRAM----
The stucture of specimen G1
***************************
----DIAGRAM----
Traverse sector of the stem specimen G1
***************************
SPECIMEN G1

(a)possesion of taproot system

(b)possesion of lenticells.
(c)pressure of hair root.
(d)possesion of succulent leaves

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOCOT
& DICOT

MONOCOT
(a)Possesion of narrow cortex
(b)absense of cambium
(c)possesion of fibrous root system
(d)possesion of broad leaf tip

DICOT
(a)possesion of wide cortex.
(b)presence of cambium.
(c)possesion of taproot system.
(d)possesion of pointed leaf tip

SPECIMEN G2
specimen G2 is water leaf plant with fleshy stem (left in eosin
solution for minimum of six hours).

An experiment to show that the xylem tissue conducts water
upwards from the roots through the stem to the leaves.

AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT

To show that the xylem tissue conducts water upwards from
the roots through the stem to the leave

METHOD OF THE EXPERIMENT
A young herbacous plant (specimen G2)is
uprooted,washed & placed in a beaker containing eosin solution (red ink)the roots must be completely coverd by the soluion (eosin)leave the set UP for about six hours at the end of six hours,the plants is brought out & washed in a tap water.
Transver section of the roots, stems,7leavesof
the plant are made & examined under a microscope .

OBSERVATION
-The xylem vessels
are staird red

CONCLUSION -it showsthat the xylem tissue conducts water in plant.

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Reply 4 on :

Mr Xbrains™(Male,23)- SPECIMEN L
Specimen L is skin of a goat.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPEICIMEN L

(a)A good source of income

(b)Its used for decoration

(c)It is used for musical instrument

(d)A good meat
*******************
----DIAGRAM----
THE STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN L
*******************
SOURCE OF SPECIMEN L

specimen L can be obtained from goat,sheep cow e.t.c

IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN L to
the organisms where it can be obtained

(a)It relegate body temerature

(b)It brings about responds to stimulus

(c)it also help for excretion &osmorgulation

(d)it also help to manufacture & store vitamins

SPECIMEN M
Specimen M is qill feather from birds
*******************
----DIAGRAM----
Structure of specimen M
*******************
Types of feather
(a)quill feather
(b)contour feather
(c)down feather
(d)filoplume feather.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN M
(a)t is used for flight
(b)it gives shape to the animal
(c)the calamus is rich in mineral
(d)it is used for making of pillos
(e)it is used for decoration
(f)A source of manure

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN M
(a)possesion of vane
(b)presence of barbs
(c)it is used for flight
(d)presence of calamus
(e)possesion shaft

ADAPTIVE FEATHERS OF SPECIMEN
M
(a)it is mdified for flight
(b)its used as an insulator
(c)it gives shapes to the organs that posses them
(d)it is also used to keep the osmotic temperature of the
organisms that posses them constant.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
L & M
(a)both are anal bye-products
(b)both also helps to maintain constant body temperature .
(c)both also helps to protect the body from diseases,cold e.t.c
(d)both can be used for decoration
-Parasites of specimen M is fles
-Parasites of specimen L is tick

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPECIMEN L & M
Specimen L
(a)specimen L is obtained from goats,sheep e.t.c
(b)it consists of fur (hairs)
(c)specimen L is not modified for flight
(d)absense ofvane & barbs

Specimen M

(a)specimen M is obtained from birds.
(b)it does not consists of fur
(c)specimen M modified for flight
(d)presense of vane & barbs

SPECIMEN N
specimen N is a shell of a great
african snail
*******************
---DIAGRAM----
STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN N
*******************
-Respiratory organ of specimen N
is by the foot.
-Habitat= terrestrial ie humid areas.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN N
(a)possesion of apex of shell
(b)it is hexical in nature
(c)presence of aparture
(d)possesion of spiral whorn.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN N
(a)it is used as ornament
(b)it is also used for musical instrument purpose
(c)A source of income.
(d)it is used for drinking of water

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
L,M & N
(a)They are all obtained from animals
(b)All are anal bye-product
(c)All are used for decoration
(d)They are used for musical instrumental purposes.

SPECIMEN P
SPECIMEN p is a tuber of irish potato .its also stem tuber.specimen P is grown on a
cold temperature environment
*******************
-DIAGRAM-
STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN P
*******************
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN P
(a)specimen P is a tuber
(b)possesion of scale leaf
(c)possesion of lenticell
(d)possesion of axillary bud or eye

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
SPECIMEN P
(a)A good source of food
(b)A source of income
(c)A specimen P is a source of carborhydrate.
SPECIMEN Q
specimen Q is a twig of hibiscus flower.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN Q
(a)The tendril twigs round a supports
(b)The tendril is located at the top of the leaf
(c) the leaf is parallel & venated
SPECIMEN R
-Specimen R is a cassava cultting.
-Specimen R is used for vegetative propagation cassava

-NOTES OTHER FEATURES OR
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN R
ARE THE SAME AS SPECIMEN A
SPECIMEN S
specimen S is hind wing of cockroach.
*******************
-DIAGRAM-
STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN S
*******************
FUNCTIONS OF SPECIMEN S
(a)it is used for flight
(b)it protects the abdominal layer

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN S
(a)it is lighter than the fore-wings
(b)possesion of distal end
(c)possesion of proximal end
(d)it consist of elytron
(e)it usually found in adult

SOURCE OR WHERE IT CAN BE FOUND
(a)specimen S can be found in cocroach
(b)organism that posseses specimen S undergoes incomplete metamorphosis

SPECIMEN H
Specimen H is freshly prepared iodine solution.

USES OF SPECIMEN H
(a)it is used for testing of starch in carbohydrate food
(b)it is also used for testing for starch in green leaf.

EXPERIMENTS USING SPECIMEN H
(a)test for starch using specimen
H & p collect a few pieces of spcimen p
(irish potato) & add few drops of specimen H (IODINE SOLUTION).
Record your observation &inference

-OBSERVATION: The colour of the
portion of specimen P change to blue-black .
-INFERENCE: It indicate the presence of starch.

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Reply 5 on :

Mr Xbrains™(Male,23)- TEST OFF STARCH ON GREEN LEAF USING THE LEAF SPECIMEN G1,G2,& Q
METHOD OF EXPERIMENT: Step 1: Collect the leaf from any of the specimen above .boil the leaf for about 4-7 minutes to kill the cells,burst starch grains that are
present & to inactivate the enzymes in the leaf.

STEP 2: Then dip the boiled leaf
into a test tube containing 70%alcohol to decolourised the leaf

STEP 3: Finally,collect the leaf in a test tube containing 70% alcohol & place in a white tile & pour few
drops of specimen H (IODINE) Solotion on the leaf.

OBSERVATION: The leaf turned blue-black or iodine solution.

INFERENCE: It indicates the presents of starch.

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Reply 6 on :

Examloaded.Com(,)- PHYSICS PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS
QUESTION 2:
(a.) Measure and record the thickness of the glass block provided.

Trace the outline ABCD of the glass block on the sheet of paper as shown. Remove the block and draw Normal at N.

Draw an incident ray such that the angle of
incidence,i=25degree. Fix two pins at points P and Q on the incident ray.
Replace the glass block and fix two other pins at point R and Y such that the pins appear to be in a straight line with the images of the pins at P and Q when viewed through the side DC of the glass block.

Remove the block and join the points at R and Y producing the
line to meet DC and X. Join NX and measure its length L.

Evaluate L^-2 and Sin^2i. Repeat the experiment for i=35degree, 45degree,55degree
and 65degree.
In each case determine the corresponding
values of L, L^-2 and Sin^i.

Plot a graph of L^- on the vertical axis and Sin^2i on the horizontal axis, starting both axes from the origin.

Determine the slope(s) of the graph and the intercept(I) on the vertical axis. Evaluate the expression: K=(I/S)^1/2.

State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results.

(i.) Using your graph deduce the value of L when i=0degree.

(ii.) State Snell's law of refraction and explain why refraction occurs at the boundary between two media.

Table of values/Observation:
Width of glass block b=6.5cm.
S/N: 1,2,3,4,5.
P(degree):
25.00,35.00,45.00,55.00,65.00.
L(cm): 6.80,7.00,7.30,7.80,8.20.
L^2(cm^2):
46.24,49.00,53.29,60.84,67.24.
L^-2(cm^-2):
0.0216,0.0204,0.0188,0.0164,0.0149.
SinPdegree:
0.04226,0.5736,0.7071,0.8191,0.9063.
Sin^2Pdegree:
0.1786,0.3290,0.5000,0.6710,0.8214.

NOTE THE FOLLOWINGS:
*Draw a table for the above values.

*Note that ^ means Raise to Power. Eg: 2^-1 means Two raise to power minus One.

*Note that COMMA(,) in the above table means NEXT LINE. Eg: 2,3,4,5 means dat 3 is under 2, 4 is under 3 and 5 is under 4 in a table form.

Therefore, S/N has 1,2,3,4,5 under it, in a table as shown in the table of values above. i.e 1 is under S/N and 2 is under 1 and 3 is under 2 and 4 is under 3 and so on..... **************************** Slope= DL^-2(cm^-2)/DSin^2i = 0.0136-0.0224/0.96-0.1 = 0.0088/0.86 = -0.01023(cm^-2) K=(1/5)^1/2 = (0.234/0.01023) ^1/2 = 1.512cm, =1.5cm.

Deduction intercept on vertical axis = 0.0234(cm2).

PRECAUTIONS:
(i.) I avoided error of parallax.

(ii.) I ensured that the object pins and the image pins were erect and in a straight line.

(bi) When i = OL^-2 = 0.0236cm^-2 = L^-2 = 42.37cm^2. Hence L=6.5cm.

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Reply 7 on :

-(ELECTRICITY):
You are provided with a constantan wire, a 2-ohm standard resistor, an accumulator E, an ameter(A), a key(K) and other necessary
apparatus.

(i.) Measure and record the e.m.f of the accumulator provided.

(ii.) Connect a circuit as shown in the diagram above.

(iii.) Close the Key, read and record the ameter readings to
when the crocodile clip is not in contact with the constantan
wire.

(iv.) Open the key with the key making contact with the wire,
when L=90cm. Close the key.

Read and record the ammeter reading I, Evaluate I^-1.

(v.) Repeat the procedure for L=80,70,60 and 50cm.

(vi.) In each case, read and record the ammeter reading and Evaluate I^-1(A^-1).

(vii.) Plot a graph, L on the vertical axis and I^-1 on the horizontal axis.

(viii.) Determine the slope of the graph and its intercept,c on the
vertical axis.

(ix) Evaluate K = c/S.

(x) Using your graph, determine the current(i) when L = 55cm.

(xi.) State two precautions taken to ensure accurate result.

SOLUTIONS:

TABLE OF VALUES:
S/N: 1,2,3,4,5.
Io(A):
0.650,0.700,0.750,0.800,0.850.
L(cm):
90.00,80.00,70.00,60.00,50.00.
I^-1(A^- 1):
0.011,0.013,0.014,0.017,0.020.
I(A): 0.70,0.75,0.80,0.85,0.90.
****************************
NOTE THE FOLLOWING:

*Draw a table for the above values.

*Note that ^ means Raise to Power. Eg: 2^-1 means Two raise
to power minus One.

*Note that COMMA(,) in the above table means NEXT LINE. Eg:
2,3,4,5 means dat 3 is under 2, 4 is under 3 and 5 is under 4 in a
table form.

Therefore, S/N has 1,2,3,4,5 under it, in a table as shown in
the table of values above. i.e 1 is under S/N and 2 is under 1 and 3 is under 2 and 4 is under 3 and so
on.....
****************************
(viii.) Slope(S) = DI/DI^-1 =
0.65/0.24
= 27.1.

Intercept (c) on the vertical axis =0.43amps.

(ix.) K= c/S = 0.43/27.1
= 0.016.

(x.) The value of the current I when L = 55cm = 0.018cm.

(xi.) Precautions:

(a.) I made sure the key was removed when readings were
not being taken.

(b.) I ensured that the terminals were clean.

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Reply 8 on :

Mr Xbrains™(Male,23)- SPECIMEN A[SANDY
SOIL]it contains
gravelcoarse sand
fine sand and limited amount of silt
Characteristics of specimen a
1.it is grey and brownish in colour.
2.its particles are large
.3it has lower water retention
capacity
4.it is not pliable or plastic so it can
not form structure.
5.it has large pore spaces and
therefore are wild aerated
Economic importance of specimen
a.
1.easy to work on or plough upon.
2.easily washed away or leached
4.easily heat up
5.well aerated
6.has low PH value hence likely
acidic
7.support growth of water
SPECIMEN B[LOAMY SOIL]it contains
fair balance of
clay silt and sand particles.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN B
1.it is dark brownor black in colour
2.it is not as coarse as sand nor as
smooth as clay
3.it has moderate speed pore
space
4.it contains organic matters or
residue
5.the rate of water percolaton is
moderate
ECONOMICS IMPORTANCE OF
SPECIMEN B
1.moderate water absorbing and
holding capacity
2.it contains organic matter which is
source of plant
nutrients when decomposed
3.easy to work or plough upon
4.does not easily loose its nutrients
through leaching
5’well aerated for root respiration
and development.
6.best soil for crop cultivation
exmple maize rice cassava
okro tomato and millet.
SPECIMEN C[CLAY SOIL]the particles
are predominated
by clay consisting of about 60%
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN C
1.it contains small fine poudry
compact particles.
2.it is smooth and velvet
3.the pore space hence not well
aerated
4.has low water retention.
5’grey or brownish in colour
6.friable or plastic or easy to
mould.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE.OF
SPECIMEN C
1.difficult to work on or plough
2.poorly aerated
3.easily lodged by water.
4.not easily leached
5.not easily heated
6.supports growth
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPECIMENA
AND C
1.SPECIMEN A HAS LARGE PARTICLES
OR
COARSED TEXTURE-----SPECIMEN C
HAS SMALL
PARTICLES OR FINE TEXTURE
2.WELL AERATED ----------------
SPECIMEN C IS
POORLY AERATED
3.EASY TO PLOUGH --------------------
SPECIMEN C IS
DIFFICULT TO PLOUGH
4 SPECIMEN A FORMS NO
STRUCTURE
------------------------------SPECIMENC
FORMS
AGGREGATE OR LUMPS
5.WARMER SOIL
----------------------------------COOLER
SOIL
6.POOR WATER RETENTION
………………………………………………………
WATER RETENTION
SPECIMEN D[PEBBLE OR SAND
STONE]IT IS A
SEDIMENTARY ROCK FORMED BY
SETTLING OF
SEDIMENTS.THE SEDIMENTS ARE
DEPOSITED IN
LAYERS BY AGENTS LIKE FLOWING
WATER WIND
AND ICE.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN D
1.IT APPEARS IN LAYERS
2.IT HAS COARSE TEXTURE
3.PRESENCE OF IRREGULAR
FRACTURE
4.LOOSED BINDING PARTICLES
5.SOFT AND EASILY BREAKED WHEN
SLIGHT
FORCE IS APPLIED
SPECIMEN E[GRANITE]IT IS AN
IGNEOUS ROCK
FORMED BY MOLTEN MAGMA
(SOLIDIFICATION)
FROM BENEATH THE EARTH CRUST.IT
IS THE
OLDEST KNOWN ROCK.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN E
1.SHINY IN APPEARANCE
2.LIGHT DARK IN COLOUR
3.COARSELY CRYSTALLINE IN
APPEARANCE
4.HAS FIRMED BINDING PARTICLES
5.ETREMELY HARD AND REQUIRES A
GREATER
FORCE TO BREAK’
SPECIMEN F[MARBLE]IT IS A
METAMORPHIC
ROCK FORMED FROM IGNEOUS AND
SEDIMENTARY ROCK
WHICH AS A RESULT OF SUBJECTION
TO
INTENSIVE HEAT AND PRESSURE
HENCE CHANGE
ITS FOMER STATE BY PROCESS OF
METAMORPHISM,CHALK AND LIME
STONE ARE
CHANGED TO MARBLE.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN F
1.HARD AND DO NOT BREAK EASILY
2.SHINY IN APPEARANCE
3.MULTI COLOURED
4.GRANULER TEXTURE
5.CRYSTALLINE SHAPE
SPECIMEN G[LITMUS PAPER(BLUE
AND RED)]IT IS
A COMMON INDICATOR USED TO
DETERMINE THE
ACIDITY OR ALKALINENITY OF SOIL
(SOIL PH)
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN G
1.BLUE LITMUS PAPER TURN RED IN
ACID
2.RED LITMUS PAPER TURN RED
ALKALI
3.LITMUS PAPER TURN PURPLE
WHEN NEUTRAL
SPECIMEN H[DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC
ACID(HCL)]
IT IS AN INORGANIC ACID MADE OF
HYDROGEN
AND CHLORINE.
PROPERTIES OF SPECIMEN H
1.CORROSIVE
2.TURNS BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED
3.MADE OF HYDROGEN AND
CHLORINE
SPECIMEN I[SHEAR]IT IS SIMILAR IN
SHAPE TO
SCISSORS BT MUCH LONGER.IT HAS
METALIC OR
WOODEN HANDLE WITH SHARP
USES OF SPECIMEN I
1.FOR TRIMMING HEDGES
2.FOR PRUNNING
MAINTENANCE OF SPECIMEN I
1.WASH AND DRY THE METAL PART
AFTER USE
2.SHARPEN THE BLUNT BLADE
3.LUBRICATE THE METRAL PART TO
AVOID RUST
4.STORE IN A COOL DRY PLACE
N/B MAKE A DRAWING OF SHEAR
YOURSELFSPECIMEN J[SECATEURS]IT
IS A
SCISSORS SHAPED
AND STUNT OR SHORT METAL FARM
TOOLS WITH
SHARP BLADE.THE METAL HANDLE
ARE LONGER
USES OF SPECIMEN J
1.FOR CUTTING HARD WOODEN
PLANT FOR
BULIDING
2.FOR PRUNING
3.HARVESTING
4.TRIMMING HEDGES
MAINTENANCE OF SPECIMEN J
1.CLEAN AND DRY AFTER USE
2.OIL THE METAL PART
3.SHARPEN THE BLUNT BLADE
4.STORE IN A COOL DRY PLACE
DRAW AND LABEL SPECIMEN J
SPECIMEN K[SPADE]IT CONSIST OF A
METAL BLADE AND LONG WOODEN
OR METAL
HANDLE WITH SHARP EDGE OF
USES OF SPECIMEN K
1.FOR MAKING HOLE DURING
TRANSSPLANTING
2.LEVELING GROUND
3.BURNYING WEED
4.REMOVING RUBISH
6.DIGGING DRAINS.
8.EXCALVATION.
SPECIMEN L[SPEAR GRASS]
(imperata cylindrical)it is a
perrenial grass it is grown mostly
on silt soil with low
nutritive value.it is a rhizomaton
grass.
Economic importance
1.it acts as feed for livestock
2.it destroys the soil nutrients.
3It destroys tubers
Specimen m[ tridax](tridax
procummbers)
Dispersal agent wind
Draw image of tridaxSpecimen n
[elephant grass}
(pennisetumpurpureum)it is
an indiginious grass found all over
the tropics in wet
areas.it can grow up to three metre
high.it is found in river
banks and forest edges.it is
aperreniaal grass.its
importance lies on the high yielding
of protein and starch
equivalent.
Specimen o
[centrosema]centrosema
pubescens) it is a vine
like legummious plant.it produces a
good cover for 4-6
months.it has a strong climbing
tendency,drought
resistence.it is rich in protein source
for grazing animals
and have high nutritional value
Propagation
1.by seed(animal)
Specimen p[tropical kudzu](puerari
spp)it is a vigorous
densely herbadaptive to high rain
fall.it has a deep rooting
system.the root is tuberous.so it
can store enough food.it
does best in heavy soil and poorly
on sandy soil.
Propagation.by seed
Specimen q [piece of meat]it is
obtained from animals
Economic imporatance
1.source of protein
2.source of income source of food
Specimen r[leather]it is a product
of animal skin
Uses of specimen r
1.for leather belt production
2.leather shoes production
3.Leather bags production
4.Leather furnitures
Specimen s[feather]it covers the
body of birds.
Functions of specimen f
1.for flight
2.for courtship or sexual display
3.for identification
4.to give animals shape
5.for protection or carmourflage
Types of specimen f
Quail feather;found on the wings
and tails used for flight
Contour feather;smaller than quail
and have barbsit helps
to give birds streamlined body or
shape.
Down feather;it has short shaft and
barbs but no
barbules .it keeps the bird warm
Filoplume;it has a slender shjaft
with luft of barbs at the
end
Make diagrams of this types of
feathersSpecimen t [liverfluke]it is
an
endoparasite which attacks
and kills the host especially sheep
and cattles.it lives in the
liver of the host.the primary host is
sheep and cattle while
the secondary host is water snail.
Economic importance os specimen t
1,loose of blood
2.causes anaemia
3.digestive disturbance
4.Obstruction in bile duct
4.causes livewr rot
6.death of the host
Control measure
1.spray waterbodies at infected
areas with chemicals
example(cuso4)to kill snails
2.drain pools and swamp water to
destroy snails living
environment
3.vegetation along slowguish
stream,and leaves should be
treamed
4.prevent fasrm animals from
grazing near infected water
sources
5infected animals are treated by
drenching them carbon
tetrachloride
Diagram of liverfluke
Specimen u {it is an ectoparasite.it
belongs to the class
anthropods known as arachinida.it
is a blood sucking
arthropod.it posses piercing and
sucking mouth part by
means of which it sucks blood from
the host.it is of two
types
1 hard ticks(ixodidae)
Soft ticks(argasidae)
The body is divided into twothe
head and abdomen,it has
four parts of legs and the mouth
part bears a
toothhypasome.which is a piercing
and sucking organ.
Damage cost by specimen u
1.loose of blood
2damage skin and irritation
3 transmission of disesase through
bile example babesiosis
or red water of cattle, or tick born
fever tularemia and
anaplasmosis
Economic importance
1.reduce the quality of skin due to
wound caused
2.reduce production of meat and
milk
3.lost of income
4.transmission of disease
5.due to restlessnes caused by
irritation,yielding is reduced
Control measure
1.rotational grazing
2.hand picking and destroy
3.regular spraying of insecticide
4.keep the farm clean
5.regular disinfection of livestock
pens or premises
Diagram of tickSpecimen v
(water)it is the
compound of hydrogenand
oxygen.
Sources of specimen v
River,pond,stream,sea,lakeocean
Economic importance…for seed
germination
2.plant growth
3.maimtain body temperature and
regulation
4.For nutrient distribution
For excretion of waste product in
the body
Specimen w(egg)it is laid by fowl
on the dry land after
fertilization.it is a special egg called
amnite egg because of
thepresence of aministic fluid that
provide aquatic
environment for the embryo.it
consist of the shell
yolk.embroyotic membrane
albumen and chalaza.
Functions of theparts of specimen
w
Shell membrane ;provides gaseous
exchange surface
Air space;store air for gaseous
exchange
Albumen ‘’provides food..(protein
and salt)and water for
the embryoyolk sac;contains the
yolk.
Chalaza;supports the yolk
Embryo;it grows and developes
into new
organism.chodon;controls
permeability and prevents water
loss fromamnion

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fredzy(Male,16)- Tanks..I nid other subjects
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Originally posted by JAMIU
mr xbrain pls i need other subject tomorrow physics chemistry biology agric,geography maths nd td objective nd theory

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Bonguy(,)- Tnkz alot,i'm enjoyin u coz u 2 much.God wil bless u all.pls wen wil d oda science subject b posted?
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